Bible Study – The Last Supper

Because John only alludes to the Last Supper in John 13, we are going to take a brief detour into Luke and pick-up this event. It is also recorded in Matthew 26:17-29 and Mark 14:22-25. We will resume our study of the Upper Room Discourse next time.

Jesus went into Jerusalem specifically for Passover, as it was one of the most important feasts on the Jewish calendar. His “hour” was also rapidly-approaching, the time when He would be crucified, and He wanted to eat the Passover meal for one last time. What was only symbolic in Passover was soon going to become true spiritual-reality.

Jesus had washed His disciple’s feet and dismissed Judas Iscariot in the last section, and now their feast begins in earnest. Judas only got to see the feast, but he didn’t get to partake.

The Preparation…
7 Then came the first day of Unleavened Bread on which the Passover lamb had to be sacrificed. 8 And Jesus sent Peter and John, saying, “Go and prepare the Passover for us, so that we may eat it.” 9 They said to Him, “Where do You want us to prepare it?” 10 And He said to them, “When you have entered the city, a man will meet you carrying a pitcher of water; follow him into the house that he enters. 11 And you shall say to the owner of the house, ‘The Teacher says to you, “Where is the guest room in which I may eat the Passover with My disciples?”’ 12 And he will show you a large, furnished upper room; prepare it there.” 13 And they left and found everything just as He had told them; and they prepared the Passover. (Luke 22:7-13)

We find some interesting details in this scene, along with begging some questions. Had Jesus prearranged to have His Passover meal hosted in that particular home? If He had, He had kept the location secret from His disciples. Was the man carrying the pitcher of water also prearranged?

Jesus sent two of His most trusted disciples, Peter and John, to get the Passover meal ready for them to partake. They had to get their lamb or kid slaughtered, roast it, acquire the unleavened-bread and the wine, and set the table for dinner. By the time of Christ, since the animals were no longer slaughtered by the individual families, but were slaughtered in the Temple, the time for sacrificing them had been moved up to between noon and three PM rather than at twilight. The animal had to be slaughtered and roasted whole, which meant that this meal couldn’t take place until after dark. We saw in John 13:30 that it was “night” when Judas went on his dastardly-errand. It was quite fitting that he did his dastardly-deed under the cover of darkness.

A man carrying a pitcher of water would have stuck out like a sore-thumb, because only women carried pitchers of water. If a man carried water, it was in a water-skin.

To answer those questions, I believe that we are seeing another instance of Jesus’ divine foreknowledge, rather than meticulous pre-planning. We saw this foreknowledge in John 1:48, when Jesus “saw” Nathanael under a fig tree, and in Matthew 21:1-3, when Jesus “knew” that there would be a donkey and her colt tied up in the next town. Jesus “knew” that He and His disciples would be welcome in a certain person’s home, and that, at the appropriate time, a man would be carrying a pitcher of water who would lead them to the home. None of these events were “coincidental“.

14 When the hour had come, He reclined at the table, and the apostles with Him. 15 And He said to them, “I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer; 16 for I say to you, I shall never again eat it until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God.” 17 And when He had taken a cup and given thanks, He said, “Take this and share it among yourselves; 18 for I say to you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine from now on until the kingdom of God comes.” 19 And when He had taken some bread and given thanks, He broke it and gave it to them, saying, “This is My body which is given for you; do this in remembrance of Me.” 20 And in the same way He took the cup after they had eaten, saying, “This cup which is poured out for you is the new covenant in My blood. (Luke 22:14-20)

When all was ready, Jesus and His disciples gathered in the upper room to eat their meal. Even though they had probably eaten several Passover meals together, this one had special significance. 15 And He said to them, “I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer;” He was on the final count-down to His crucifixion, so this would be their last meal together before He went to the cross.

16 for I say to you, I shall never again eat it until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God.” Jesus was not only speaking of the imminence of His death, but also His confidence in His resurrection and His eventual return, when the kingdom of God will reach its ultimate fulfillment.

As much as we would like to think that Jesus’ disciples were “special“, they weren’t. They were still broken men. James and John had egos the size of Texas and had argued over which one of them would be “first” in the kingdom of God. Oh, and they both had fiery-tempers. Peter was bold and brash, and he had the nasty-habit of running his mouth at all the wrong times. He rebuked Jesus just a few days before. Simon the Zealot would have loved it if Jesus had raised an army and gone after the Romans. Matthew was an ex-tax- collector, a “traitor“, and it is probably a safe bet that there was no love lost between him and Simon Z. In a few hours, most of them would cut and run when Jesus got arrested, not to mention that Peter would also deny Him three times. Only John had the moxie to follow Jesus all the way to the cross. There were a few gutsy women there too. Jesus didn’t “fence the table“, as many pastors do today, when He served this special meal to His disciples, He served it to broken men.

17 And when He had taken a cup and given thanks, He said, “Take this and share it among yourselves;” Jesus didn’t restrict any one of His disciples from partaking in this special meal, because after He died on the cross and rose again from the dead, it would take on an even greater significance. 20 And in the same way He took the cup after they had eaten, saying, “This cup which is poured out for you is the new covenant in My blood.” ALL covenants were ratified with blood, binding both parties to the terms of the agreement, and the New Covenant, which Jesus ratified on the cross, was no different.

19 And when He had taken some bread and given thanks, He broke it and gave it to them, saying, “This is My body which is given for you; do this in remembrance of Me.” We looked at the Bread of Life discourse a few weeks ago, and this “living bread” was His body, which was broken so that we might be saved.

As the Lord’s Supper is intended as a Table of Restoration, this study is intended to segue into “Come And Eat(https://pipermac5.wordpress.com/2015/06/14/come-and-eat/) , which I posted several months ago.

In Christ,
Steve

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